The oil extraction process, understood as transformation, consists of several phases beginning with the olive harvest and ends in the final packaging.
The quality of the oil obtained is most important, and that is what the consumer perceives. The process has to be focused end product quality.
To obtain an Extra Virgin Olive Oil quality should be used exclusively Flight olives, healthy, who are in their peak of ripeness, freshly picked, and be very picky about the condition of the materials to be contact with the basic cleaning of facilities and implement adequate working conditions in each of the processes that make up the development.
Collect olives, varear
During the months of November, December and January, the farmers make to collect the olive groves that soon will become expected and requested oils worldwide. The shaking was and is the traditional collection consisting shake the branches to fall olives. Once they have fallen off the tree must be as soon as possible to the mills.
Increasingly, the field work is being modernized, and is common to see vibrators in the olive harvest. There are one-person vibrators as a mechanized rod and big vibrators for tractor and waving around the olive tree once.
Receiving the olive mills
Harvested olives are transported to the mill for grinding. Transport methods must maintain the integrity of the fruit intact, so should be avoided olive transporting bagged.
The transport of soil and olives tree should be done separately in clean transport, and the mill recepcionarse differentiated.
The first step that must be taken at mills is to classify the fruit being received. This arrangement is usually made according to the variety, degree of ripeness, sanitary state. Once classified, olives undergo a process of cleaning, washing, weighing and storage until the time of grinding.
Grinding and beaten
The ground can break the structure of the olive without boning, to release the liquid. However the beaten pulp is separated from the other elements for gradually extracting the oil go. The result of these two processes is the olive paste that will cause oil future.
In continuous systems, it is generally horizontal mixers using several bodies made of stainless steel, with a pallet system and a heating system using hot water circulating through a jacket around each mixer body.
The length of mixing time should be sufficient to achieve a cluster phase and obtain a uniform, desired temperature in the dough.
In the mixing process, it is necessary to heat the dough to reduce the viscosity and thus facilitate the formation of the oil phase and extraction.
For quality oil, the temperature of the beating mass must not exceed 27 º C – 29 º C, and the mixing time does not exceed 90 minutes.
Separation of solid and liquid phases
Here begins a critical phase that will determine the final product quality. Once the dough, separate the liquid from the solid. And this process is performed by a selective filtering (takes place an extraction of oil remaining on top of the dough) and the extraction pressure (hydraulic presses the pulp is distributed on the filter mats or discs stacked and subjected to the pressure generated by the presses and you get the oil, vegetable water and pomace of olive. the oil obtained from the first pressing is of higher quality).
Liquid phase separation
Although the liquid material emerging leaves, still contains a small amount of solids obviously be eliminated. This new separation can be done by decantation, centrifugation or through a mixed system that combines both.
Classification and Storage
The oil is stored in the mill before it is packaged and comes to market consumer in perfect condition. This phase will experience positive changes as it loses some of the bitter flavors while gaining in nuances and sensations sweet and nice.
The oils should be classified and stored differently depending on their quality and origin (ground or tree).
The oil obtained is stored in vats or tanks in the holds of the mills. The latter material should be inert.
The ideal temperature is between 18 º C – 20 º C, to allow maturation without triggering rust oils.
There should be a careful cleaning of the tank before filling.
The funds accumulated impurities must be removed, and that along with the dirt and dust, and are protein substances that ferment sugar easily, communicating oil flavors and odors of mold, humidity, cantankerous, dirty, lint, dirt, etc. .;, and also raise the acidity. Thus, deposits must be purged periodically, including clean transferred into another tank.
Olive Oil Packaging
Before packaging of virgin olive oil (extra virgin or virgin), the oil is filtered to remove any impurities and moisture that may lead (also can be packed without filtering, called “oil industry” or “unfiltered oil ‘, which eventually cause the formation of small wells in the bottom of the container).
In the packaging plants, filled and labeled containers of extra virgin olive oil, or virgin, for marketing.
To be ready for consumption not just any oil packaging material. The most commonly used PET (plastic), glass, tin and cardboard coated. We recommend the use of opaque containers not to miss the light to avoid altering the excellence that hides inside oil